In the field of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a method that consists of building or assembling infrastructure. It involves using a detailed plan and design and putting together different materials and elements to form a certain structure. Usually, these projects are managed by a project manager and supervised by a project architect, construction engineer, or construction manager. There are four major types of constructions, each with its own requirements and characteristics:
Major Types of Construction
The four major types of construction include residential building, institutional and commercial building, specialized industrial construction, infrastructure and heavy construction.
1. Residential Building
The first type of construction is residential housing construction which involves building, repairing, and remodeling of structures for the purpose of housing people, supplies, or equipment. It includes apartments, townhomes, condos, nursing homes, dormitories, etc. Also, garages and outbuildings like utility sheds are considered as residential constructions. As mentioned above, residential construction also involves repair and installation of utilities like water as electricity around the structure.
The design of residential housing projects is usually done by engineers and architects and the construction itself executed by construction companies who hire subcontractors to do the mechanical, structural and electrical work of the project. But for single-family houses, builders usually do all of the phases, both the design and the construction.
2. Institutional and Commercial Building
This type of construction encompasses projects schools, sports arenas, shopping centers, hospitals, stadiums, retail stores, and skyscrapers. Like the residential housing construction, institutional and commercial building involves both putting up of new structures and repair and maintenance of existing structures. Typically, a project like a retail store is usually commissioned by a company or private owner. Other projects such as stadiums, schools, and medical facilities are often paid for and managed by both the local and national government.
3. Specialized Industrial Construction
The third type of construction is specialized industrial construction which entails building structures that require a high level of specialization as well as technical skills in planning, construction, and design. Typically, this type of construction is carried out by for-profit or industrial corporations. For instance, a chemical industry can build oil refineries, and power generation industry can build structures nuclear power plants and hydroelectric power plants, which are examples of specialized industrial constructions.
4. Infrastructure and Heavy Construction
The last type of construction is infrastructure and heavy construction which encompasses building and upgrading of railways, communications, and roads, railways to the surroundings of a city or existing building construction. This type of construction usually done due to the public interest and is often executed by government agencies and large private corporations.
Some other projects that fall under this type of construction include tunnels, bridges, highways, transit systems, drainage systems, and pipelines.
These are the main types of constructions we have today. There are many construction experts to choose from depending on the type of project you have. An architect or engineer can help you design your building project while a builder can help you construct the structure. Just make sure that the person or contractor is reputable, reliable and experienced in what he does. With the use of the internet and referrals from your friends and relatives, you can get a good specialist for your project.